Myanmar English Essays Examples

Sample Business School Essays

Since many business school admissions officers encourage applicants to “write less, say more,” it is important to communicate your background and career ambitions in a concise and clear way. The essay gives admissions officers an opportunity to learn who you are, where you're going, what you have done and why their school is right for you. Use this small space to give the admissions officers a deeper sense of who you are by answering the prompt with brevity.

This section contains three sample business school essays:

  1. Business School Essay One - The Business of Recovery
  2. Business School Essay Two - Leadership in Action
  3. Business School Essay Three - Repair and Restore

The Business of Recovery — Sample Essay One

Prompt: What are your career goals? What skills do you expect to gain from studying at ABC Business School and how will they contribute to your professional career? (500 words).

Watching my brother transform from a man who had lost his ability to walk to a man who can play basketball with my father kindled my fascination of the physical therapy world. The Bureau of Labor Statistics anticipates the field of physical therapy to grow faster than average in the upcoming years. I hope to join this field during an exciting time of growth, furthering the rehabilitation of those who have been injured.

Following graduation from ABC Business School, I intend to serve a marketing team in a local physical therapy company, such as Ridgeview Physical Therapy. My short-term goal is to lead a team, furthering success in the Ridgeview area. Due to the popular physical therapy company thirty miles from Ridgeview, much of the local population is unaware of the quality services Ridgeview Physical Therapy has to offer. I hope to increase visits by 40 percent in the first 5 years of my employment. My long-term goal includes extending the company’s reach into surrounding cities, and eventually beyond national barriers, becoming a global marketing manager.

I expect to gain skills and experiences from ABC Business School that will propel my short and long-term goals. I hope to develop an experiential and diverse learning experience and have the opportunity to interact with different groups of people to learn from their business insights and endeavours. From ABC Business School, I seek the tools and resources needed to further engage in my marketing knowledge, perform professional strategic analyses, and re-evaluate my past work experiences. I look forward to taking courses from Professor Jim. W. Reid, who has published the research of the success of Matthews and Marketing in his book, “Matthews Commerce,” which has helped me continue my career this far. I also look forward to taking the unique classes taught by Professor Rachel E. Davis, introducing me to the physical therapy world and enriching my business skills in that area.

When my brother’s car accident in 2011 caused immobility in his left leg, he never thought he would be able to play his favorite sport again. David Andrews, a 1994 graduate from ABC Business School, ensured that that would not come to pass. I spoke with Andrews about his journey, and he told me that it was through the opportunities and education he received from the professors and students at ABC Business School that helped him open his own practice. I hope to follow in Andrews’s footsteps. With the passion I have for the success of Ridgeview Physical Therapy, and the determination I learned from watching my brother, all I need to complete my goals is the knowledge available to me through an MBA at ABC Business School. I look forward to completing my career aspirations using the tools received from ABC Business School to contribute to my professional career.

The world of physical therapy is growing, and with my skills in marketing, I hope to grow the local Ridgeview services across the globe.

In this essay, the applicant is assigned to answer the prompt in approximately 500 words. The admissions officer expects a clear and concise essay that does not veer off the question and exemplifies quality writing, grammar, and punctuation. In questions similar to these, the admissions officers are looking for:

  • Student’s understanding and knowledge in answering questions: The writer explains his short and long-term career goals, referencing the future of the career (Bureau of Labor Statistics) and quantifying his goals (Increase by 40 percent within the first 5 years).
  • A deeper look into who the applicant is: Writer shares personal information that also relates to answering the question (brother in physical therapy). Make sure that any personal information you share does not veer off of the question that needs to be answered.
  • Proper research on the school to adequately answer the second question: Student mentions names of professors who have demonstrated help in the past (professor’s business research book) giving credibility to the student that he believes they will be able to help him in the future. Avoid flattery and only speak of the school in a way that shows proper research and answers the question presented.

Leadership in Action — Sample Essay Two

Prompt: Present evidence of your leadership capacity and/or potential. (Approx. 550 words)

Nancy, the CEO of Jasmine Publishing House, bought me a coffee and told me I should invest in warm gloves as we sat down at a corner diner for what would be a game-changing business meeting. As the leading publishing house in Europe, Nancy informed me that JPH was interested in closing a multi-million dollar deal with our fashion magazine, Zoelle, provided we changed the magazine's appearance to attract a broader European audience.

As production manager, my job was to lead and supervise a staff of 30 to match Nancy's vision, working closely with the design team, photographers, production staff and marketing team. After three weeks of heavy brainstorming, we developed a fresh appearance for the magazine.

I invited Nancy to a meeting with me and three of our executive producers. I shared with her the strategy we had created in order to solve our appearance problem, as well as estimated costs and complications. Nancy agreed that the direction our magazine was going fit well with her vision and audience, and that JPH would be happy to work with us within the next week.

Although the team was excited to accept the offer, I was concerned that we were not prepared to complete the project so quickly. Though the executive producers did not understand, as our production team was to begin work on the next issue the following day, I explained that there may include deep financial consequences if we rush into the process. I wanted to ensure that JPH received a consistent layout from Zoelle magazine. Nancy agreed to wait until the upcoming issue was complete before beginning work on the new look.

We began work the following Tuesday, after the latest issue was produced. I collaborated with an eight member marketing team to develop new branding for our magazine and mediated this branding with the design team, ensuring that it was able to blend well with their ideas and insights based on the first meeting with Nancy. I led the operation of the first issue to be published via JPH, supervising 30 employees.

After the issue was published, our sales increased by 42 percent in the first week. After leading the Zoelle team to a business deal close and a fresh start, I learned that with the proper leadership, a staff of varied talents, insights and opinions can work closely together to produce a magazine that continues to increase its sells each issue. My initiative helped provide Zoelle with its largest new contract that year, a $2 million deal. Customers from Europe and the United States commented with positive remarks on the new look, showing interest in the replacement of the former look, which had been being published for seven years.

After this leadership experience, I was able to see my potential as a leader. I can communicate effectively with all members of a group and help connect them with one another to make a larger picture. I protect my business discernment even against an upset crowd, and am able to properly persuade others to understand other perspectives. Through learning more about leadership every day with my work in Zoelle, I hope to continue to strengthen these abilities and witness the success they can bring to media production.

In this essay, the applicant was asked to detail her leadership abilities through the application of a relevant example. She was asked to do this in approximately 550 words, using concise language and proper grammar and punctuation. In questions similar to these, the admissions officers are looking for:

  • Applicant's ability to share leadership qualities with a relevant example: This writer shared leadership qualities of communication (brainstorming with different staffs and helping them connect their ideas together), listening (brainstorming and understanding staff concerns), delegating (ensuring each team did what was supposed to be done), and managing (managed and supervised a staff of 30) through the use of an example from her work with Zoelle Magazine.
  • Proof of a potential growth in these leadership skills: The writer hopes to “continue to strengthen” her leadership skills. She provides examples of how she learned from previous leadership roles.
  • How these skills will help further your career: The writer used an example from her current career and concluded her essay with a look into the potential of leadership in her field.

Repair and Restore — Sample Essay Three

Prompt: Describe a challenging situation you have faced in the past. How did you overcome the challenge? (450 Words)

I looked across my celebratory cheesecake and beamed up at my new coworkers. I couldn't believe I had finally landed my dream job. All of the senior editors were having lunch in the cafe across the street from the bakery where the finance team and marketing team shared dessert. I had been hired as a budget analyst at my favorite magazine. My job was to work alongside the business manager to help create a more healthy marriage between the finance and marketing departments, thus improving our sales and workplace environment. On my way home, I reflected on my relief in finally having an exciting and secure career.

Just three months later, we met at the same bakery where I had celebrated my new job. Every department from our small, close-knit staff was present. As the publication manager began to tell us the news, I remember how our faces fell. Our publication company was going out of business, and every publication was to be shut down. She explained that they had tried to find another publishing company without success.

Not only did I feel as though I failed the company, I also knew that I, as well as the other 17 employees, was out of a job. We went back to our offices and packed up our things. Writers and designers were frantically calling around, asking for open positions. An employee from the finance department began tweaking his resume, and the marketing department apologized to the publication manager and editor-in-chief, who responded graciously.

I had to leave my apartment not long after losing my job. I stayed with a friend on the north side of town as I tried to find a job in a shrinking economic suburb. It took six months to find a position, and though I had to move and leave behind my dream, I found a new way to work toward my new dream.

From this experience, I learned the importance of adaptability. Only through my ability to embrace the change happening around me was I able to find a new job and start a new life with new visions and goals. Applying for my MBA would have sounded bizarre to the disheartened, homeless idealist who lost her dream. But now, after finding in me the strength to persevere, I am able to take what I learned from my previous job and pair it with what I learn from the university. This knowledge will help me ensure that the future companies I work with will not have to endure a similar fallout.

However, if there comes a time when I am again involved in a lost company, I know how to repair. I know how to restore.

In this essay, the applicant was asked to recall a challenging situation to which the writer overcame the boundaries. The writer was asked to do this in approximately 450 words, using concise language and proper grammar and punctuation. In questions similar to these, the admissions officers are looking for:

  • Applicant's ability to identify a challenging moment in her life: This writer uses a relevant example of a challenging situation, describing the challenge of losing a job, losing housing, and having to move to a different city.
  • Examples of how the applicant overcame these challenges: The writer cites her “adaptability” as the reason why she was able to overcome this challenge. Instead of giving up, the applicant tells of applying for other jobs, even ones that were out of her comfort zone and in another city.
  • Brief insights to what the applicant learned from the challenge: This writer learned how to maintain strength, perseverance and adaptability in challenging situations. The applicant tells of continuing the learning process in her MBA program and allowing it to help future companies.

Sample Essays

Related Content:

Here are our top five tips for writing a business school admissions essay:

  1. State specific reasons as to why you are a good “fit” for the school, rather than simply stating “I am the ideal candidate for your program.” Why are you the ideal candidate?
  2. Use real life examples in your essay. This will help to bring your essay to life.
  3. If you’ve taken an unorthodox path to business school, don’t be afraid to play that up. Business schools appreciate those who are unafraid to take risks.
  4. Thoroughly research your target schools in order to have a clear idea of how to appeal to each of them. Every school is looking for something different in their students.
  5. Avoid flattery. A good school knows that it’s good, and telling them so just wastes valuable space in your essay. Use that space to talk yourself up, instead.

The Burmese alphabet (Burmese: မြန်မာအက္ခရာ; pronounced [mjəmà ʔɛʔkʰəjà]) is an abugida used for writing Burmese. It is ultimately a Brahmic script adapted from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet of South India, and more immediately an adaptation of Old Mon or Pyu script. The Burmese alphabet is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit.

In recent decades, other, related alphabets, such as Shan and modern Mon, have been restructured according to the standard of the now-dominant Burmese alphabet. (See Burmese script.)

Burmese is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability.

The earliest evidence of the Burmese alphabet is dated to 1035, while a casting made in the 18th century of an old stone inscription points to 984.[1] Burmese calligraphy originally followed a square format but the cursive format took hold from the 17th century when popular writing led to the wider use of palm leaves and folded paper known as parabaiks.[2] A stylus would rip these leaves when making straight lines.[2] The alphabet has undergone considerable modification to suit the evolving phonology of the Burmese language.

There are several systems of transliteration into the Latin alphabet; for this article, the MLC Transcription System is used.



The Burmese alphabet is an adaptation of the Old Mon script[3] or the Pyu script,[1] and it is ultimately of South Indian origin, from either the Kadamba[1] or Pallava alphabet.


As with other Brahmic scripts, the Burmese alphabet is arranged into groups of five letters for stop consonants called wek (ဝဂ်, from Pali vagga) based on articulation. Within each group, the first letter is tenuis ("plain"), the second is the aspirated homologue, the third and fourth are the voiced homologues, and the fifth is the nasal homologue. This is true of the first twenty-five letters in the Burmese alphabet, which are called grouped together as wek byi (ဝဂ်ဗျည်း, from Pali vagga byañjana). The remaining eight letters (⟨ယ⟩, ⟨ရ⟩, ⟨လ⟩, ⟨ဝ⟩, ⟨သ⟩, ⟨ဟ⟩, ⟨ဠ⟩, ⟨အ⟩) are grouped together as a wek (အဝဂ်, lit. "without group"), as they are not arranged in any particular pattern.


A syllable onset is the consonant or consonant cluster that appears before the vowel of a syllable. The Burmese script has 33 letters to indicate the initial consonant of a syllable and four diacritics to indicate additional consonants in the onset. Like other abugidas, including the other members of the Brahmic family, vowels are indicated in Burmese script by diacritics, which are placed above, below, before or after the consonant character. A consonant letter with no vowel diacritic has the inherent vowel[a̰] (often reduced to [ə] when another syllable follows in the same word).

The following table provides the letter, the syllable onset in IPA, and the way the letter is referred to in Burmese, which may be either a descriptive name or just the sound of the letter, arranged in the traditional order:

Group nameGrouped consonants
Unaspirated (သိထိလ)Aspirated (ဓနိတ)Voiced (လဟု)Nasal (နိဂ္ဂဟိတ)
ကကြီး[ka̰ dʑí]ခကွေး[kʰa̰ ɡwé]ဂငယ်[ɡa̰ ŋɛ̀]ဃကြီး[ɡˀa̰ dʑí]င[ŋa̰]
/s//sʰ//z//zˀ/ဉ / ည/ɲ/
စလုံး[sa̰ lóʊN]ဆလိမ်[sʰa̰ lèɪN]ဇကွဲ[za̰ ɡwɛ́]ဈမျဉ်းဆွဲ[zˀa̰ mjɪ̀N zwɛ́]ညကလေး/ ညကြီး[ɲa̰ dʑí]
ဋသန်လျင်းချိတ်[ta̰ təlɪ́N dʑeɪʔ]ဌဝမ်းဘဲ[tʰa̰ wʊ́N bɛ́]ဍရင်ကောက်[da̰ jɪ̀N ɡaʊʔ]ဎရေမှုတ်[dˀa̰ jè m̥oʊʔ]ဏကြီး[na̰ dʑí]
တဝမ်းပူ[ta̰ wʊ́N bù]ထဆင်ထူး[tʰa̰ sʰɪ̀N dú]ဒထွေး[da̰ dwé]ဓအောက်ခြိုက်[dˀa̰ ʔaʊʔ tɕʰaɪʔ]နငယ်[na̰ ŋɛ̀]
ပစောက် ([pa̰ zaʊʔ])ဖဦးထုပ် ([pʰa̰ ʔóʊʔ tʰoʊʔ])ဗထက်ခြိုက်‌ ([ba̰ lɛʔ tɕʰaɪʔ])ဘကုန်း ([bˀa̰ ɡóʊN])မ[ma̰]
Miscellaneous consonants
Without group
ယပက်လက်[ja̰ pɛʔ lɛʔ]ရကောက်‌[ja̰ ɡaʊʔ]လငယ်[la̰ ŋɛ̀]ဝ‌[wa̰]သ‌[θa̰]
ဟ‌[ha̰]ဠကြီး[la̰ dʑí]အ[ʔa̰]
Independent vowels
  • ဃ (gh), ဈ (jh), ဋ (), ဌ (ṭh), ဍ (), ဎ (ḍh), ဏ (), ဓ (dh), and ဠ () are primarily used in words of Pāli origin.
  • ၐ (ś) and ၑ () are exclusively used in Sanskrit words, as they have merged to သ in Pali.
  • ည has an alternate form ဉ, used with the vowel diacritic ာ as a syllable onset and alone as a final.
  • With regard to pronunciation, the corresponding letters of the dentals and alveolars are phonetically equivalent.
  • ရ is often pronounced [ɹ] in words of Pali or foreign origin.
  • အ is nominally treated as a consonant in the Burmese alphabet; it represents an initial glottal stop in syllables with no other consonant.

Consonant letters may be modified by one or more medial diacritics (three at most), indicating an additional consonant before the vowel. These diacritics are:

A few Burmese dialects use an extra diacritic to indicate the /l/ medial, which has merged to /y/ in standard Burmese:

  • La hswe (လဆွဲ) - Written ္လ (MLCTS -l, indicating /l/ medial

All the possible diacritic combinations are listed below:


ya pin
မျ[mj]myGenerally only used on bilabial and velar consonants (က ခ ဂ ဃ င ပ ဖ ဗ မ လ သ).
Palatalizesvelar consonants: ကျ (ky), ချ (hky), ဂျ (gy) are pronounced [tɕ], [tɕʰ], [dʑ].
မျှ[m̥j]hmyသျှ (hsy) and လျှ (hly) are pronounced [ʃ].

ya yit
မြ[mj]mrGenerally only used on bilabial and velar consonants (က ခ ဂ ဃ င ပ ဖ ဗ မ). (but in Pali and Sanskrit loanwords, can be used for other consonants as well e.g. ဣန္ဒြေ )
Palatalizesvelar consonants: ကြ (kr), ခြ (hkr), ဂြ (gr), ငြ (ngr) are pronounced [tɕ], [tɕʰ], [dʑ], [ɲ].

wa hswe

ha hto
မှ[m̥]hmUsed only in ငှ (hng) [ŋ̊], ညှ/ဉှ (hny) [ɲ̥], နှ (hn) [n̥], မှ (hm) [m̥], လှ (hl) [ɬ], ဝှ (hw) [ʍ]. ယှ (hy) and ရှ (hr) are pronounced [ʃ].

Syllable rhymes[edit]

Syllable rhymes (i.e. vowels and any consonants that may follow them within the same syllable) are indicated in Burmese by a combination of diacritic marks and consonant letters marked with the virama character which suppresses the inherent vowel of the consonant letter. This mark is called Asat in Burmese (Burmese: အသတ်; MLCTS: a.sat, [ʔa̰θaʔ]), which means nonexistence (see Sat (Sanskrit)).

က[ka̰], [kə]ka.[a̰] is the inherent vowel, and is not indicated by any diacritic. In theory, virtually any written syllable that is not the final syllable of a word can be pronounced with the vowel [ə] (with no tone and no syllable-final [-ʔ] or [-N]) as its rhyme. In practice, the bare consonant letter alone is the most common way of spelling syllables whose rhyme is [ə].
ကာ[kà]kaTakes the alternative form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂါga[ɡà].[* 1]
ကား[ká]ka:Takes the alternative form ါး with certain consonants, e.g. ဂါးga:[ɡá].[* 1]
ကည်[kì], [kè], [kɛ̀]kany
ကည့်[kḭ], [kḛ], [kɛ̰]kany.
ကည်း[kí], [ké], [kɛ́]kany:
ကိ[kḭ]ki.As an open vowel, [ʔḭ] is represented by .
ကီ[kì]kiAs an open vowel, [ʔì] is represented by .
ကု[kṵ]ku.As an open vowel, [ʔṵ] is represented by .
ကူ[kù]kuAs an open vowel, [ʔù] is represented by .
ကူး[kú]ku:As an open vowel, [ʔú] is represented by ဦး.
ကေ[kè]keAs an open vowel, [ʔè] is represented by .
ကေး[ké]ke:As an open vowel, [ʔé] is represented by ဧး.
ကော[kɔ́]kau:Takes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါgau:[ɡɔ́].[* 1] As an open vowel, [ʔɔ́] is represented by .
ကောက်[kaʊʔ]kaukTakes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါက်gauk[ɡaʊʔ].[* 1]
ကောင်[kàʊN]kaungTakes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါင်gaung[ɡàʊN].[* 1]
ကောင့်[ka̰ʊN]kaung.Takes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါင့်gaung.[ɡa̰ʊN].[* 1]
ကောင်း[káʊN]kaung:Takes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါင်းgaung:[ɡáʊN].[* 1]
ကော့[kɔ̰]kau.Takes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါ့gau.[ɡɔ̰].[* 1]
ကော်[kɔ̀]kauTakes an alternative long form with certain consonants, e.g. ဂေါ်gau[ɡɔ̀].[* 1] As an open vowel, [ʔɔ̀] is represented by .
  1. ^ abcdefghiThe consonant letters that take the long form are , , , , , and .

Diacritics and symbols[edit]

SymbolBurmese nameNotes
အသတ်, တံခွန်Virama; Combined to form ော်, which changes inherent vowel to /ɔ̰ ɔ̀ ɔ́/ respectively
Creates a consonant final when used with က င စ ည (ဉ) ဏ တ န ပ မ ယ ဝ
င်္ကင်းစီးSuperscripted miniature version of င်; phonetic equivalent of nasalized င် ([ìN]) final.
Found mainly in Pali and Sanskrit loans (e.g. "Tuesday," spelt အင်္ဂါ and not အင်ဂါ)
အောက်မြစ်Anusvara, creates creaky tone, but only used with a consonant final (open vowels have an inherent creaky tone)
ရေးချ, မောက်ချ, ဝိုက်ချCreates low tone; called ဝိုက်ချ if used with ခ ဂ င ဒ ပ ဝ
Combined to form ော့ ော် ော, which changes inherent vowel to /ɔ̰ ɔ̀ ɔ́/ respectively
◌းဝစ္စပေါက်, ရှေ့ကပေါက်, ရှေ့ဆီးVisarga; creates high tone, but cannot be used alone
သဝေထိုးChanges inherent vowel to /e/
Combined to form ော့ ော် ော, which changes inherent vowel to /ɔ̰ ɔ̀ ɔ́/ respectively
နောက်ပစ်Changes inherent vowel to /ɛ/ and creates high tone
တစ်ချောင်းငင်did cho ngin, changes inherent vowel to /u/ and creates creaky tone
Combined to form ို, which changes inherent vowel to /o/
နှစ်ချောင်းငင်Changes inherent vowel to /u/
လုံးကြီးတင်lung ji din, changes inherent vowel to /i/ and creates creaky tone
Combined to form ို, which changes inherent vowel to /o/
လုံးကြီးတင်ဆန်ခတ်Changes inherent vowel to /i/
ွဲအဆွဲအငင်Changes inherent vowel to /ɛ/ and adds /-w-/ medial
သေးသေးတင်Anunaasika, creates nasalised /-n/ final
Combined to form ုံ့ ုံ ုံး, which changes rhyme to /o̰ʊN òʊN óʊN/
used exclusively for Sanskrit
used exclusively for Sanskrit r̥̄
"tall a", used to denote "ာ" in some letters to avoid confusion with က, တ, ဘ, ဟ, အ.[4]
ေါ်used to denote "ော်" in some letters to avoid confusion for က, တ, ဘ, ဟ, အ.[4]

One or more of these accents can be added to a consonant to change its sound. In addition, other modifying symbols are used to differentiate tone and sound, but are not considered diacritics.


La hswe (လဆွဲ) used in old Burmese from the Bagan to Innwa periods (12th century - 16th century), and could be combined with other diacritics (ya pin, ha hto and wa hswe) to form ္လျ ္လွ ္လှ.[5][6] Similarly, until the Innwa period, ya pin was also combined with ya yit. From the early Bagan period to the 19th century, ဝ် was used instead of ော် for the rhyme /ɔ̀/ Early Burmese writing also used ဟ်, not the high tone marker း, which came into being in the 16th century. Moreover, အ်, which disappeared by the 16th century, was subscripted to represent creaky tone (now indicated with ့). During the early Bagan period, the rhyme /ɛ́/ (now represented with the diacritic ဲ) was represented with ါယ်). The diacritic combination ိုဝ် disappeared in the mid-1750s (typically designated as Middle Burmese), having been replaced with the ို combination, introduced in 1638. The standard tone markings found in modern Burmese can be traced to the 19th century.[6]

Stacked consonants[edit]

Certain sequences of consonants are written one atop the other, or stacked. A pair of stacked consonants indicates that no vowel is pronounced between them, as for example the m-bh in ကမ္ဘာkambha "world". This is equivalent to using a virama် on the first consonant (in this case, the m); if the m and bh were not stacked, the inherent vowel a would be assumed (*ကမဘာkamabha). Stacked consonants are always homorganic (pronounced in the same place in the mouth), which indicated by the traditional arrangement of the Burmese alphabet into five-letter rows of letters called ဝဂ်. (Consonants not found in a row beginning with k, c, t, or p can only be doubled – that is, stacked with themselves.)

When stacked, the first consonant (the final of the preceding syllable, in this case m) is written as usual, while the second consonant (the onset of the following syllable, in this case bh) is subscripted beneath it.

GroupPossible combinationsTranscriptionsExample
Kက္က, က္ခ, ဂ္ဂ, ဂ္ဃkk, kkh, gg, ggh [also ng?]dukkha (ဒုက္ခ‌), meaning "suffering"
Cစ္စ, စ္ဆ, ဇ္ဇ, ဇ္ဈ, ဉ္စ, ဉ္ဆ, ဉ္ဇ, ဉ္ဈcc, cch, jj, jjh, nyc, nych, nyj, nyjhwijja (ဝိဇ္ဇာ), meaning "knowledge"
Tဋ္ဋ, ဋ္ဌ, ဍ္ဍ, ဍ္ဎ, ဏ္ဋ, ဏ္ဍtt, tth, dd, ddh, nt, ndkanta (ကဏ္ဍ), meaning "section"
Tတ္တ, တ္ထ, ဒ္ဒ, ဒ္ဓ, န္တ, န္ထ, န္ဒ, န္ဓ, န္နtt, tth, dd, ddh, nt, nth, nd, ndh, nnmanta. le: (မန္တလေး), Mandalay, a city in Burma
Pပ္ပ, ပ္ဖ, ဗ္ဗ, ဗ္ဘ, မ္ပ, မ္ဗ, မ္ဘ, မ္မ,pp, pph, bb, bbh, mp, mb, mbh, mmkambha (ကမ္ဘာ), meaning "world"
(other)ဿ, လ္လ, ဠ္ဠss, ll, llpissa (ပိဿာ), meaning viss, a traditional Burmese unit of weight measurement

Stacked consonants are mostly confined to loan words from languages like Pali, Sanskrit, and occasionally English. For instance, the Burmese word for "paper" (a Pali loan) is spelt စက္ကူ, not စက်ကူ, although both would be read the same. They are not found in native Burmese words except for the purpose of abbreviation. For example, the Burmese word သမီး "daughter" is sometimes abbreviated to သ္မီး, even though the stacked consonants do not belong to the same row and a vowel is pronounced between. Similarly, လက်ဖက် "tea" is commonly abbreviated to လ္ဘက်.


Main article: Burmese numerals

A decimal numbering system is used, and numbers are written in the same order as Hindu-Arabic numerals.

The digits from zero to nine are: ၀၁၂၃၄၅၆၇၈၉ (Unicode 1040 to 1049). The number 1945 would be written as ၁၉၄၅. Separators, such as commas, are not used to group numbers.


There are two primary break characters in Burmese, drawn as one or two downward strokes: ၊ (called ပုဒ်ဖြတ်, ပုဒ်ကလေး, ပုဒ်ထီး, or တစ်ချောင်းပုဒ်) and ။ (called ပုဒ်ကြီး, ပုဒ်မ, or နှစ်ချောင်းပုဒ်), which respectively act as a comma and a full stop. There is a Shan exclamation mark ႟. Other abbreviations used in literary Burmese are:

  • ၏—used as a full stop if the sentence immediately ends with a verb.
  • ၍—used as a sentence connector to connect two trains of thought.
  • ၌—locative ('at').
  • ၎င်း—ditto (used in columns and lists)

See also[edit]



  • Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2886-8. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Herbert, Patricia M.; Anthony Milner (1989). South-East Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1267-6. 
  • Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. 
  • "A History of the Myanmar Alphabet"(PDF). Myanmar Language Commission. 1993. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  • "Representing Myanmar in Unicode Details and Examples"(PDF). Martin Hosken. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 

External links[edit]

Fonts supporting Burmese characters[edit]

Fonts Converter[edit]

  1. ^ abcAung-Thwin (2005): 167–178, 197–200
  2. ^ abLieberman (2003): 136
  3. ^Harvey (1925): 307
  4. ^ ab; retrieved 2010-11-17
  5. ^Herbert et al (1989): 5–2
  6. ^ abMLC (1993)

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