As sports has grown into a multi-billion dollar industry, there has been an explosion in the
number of lawyers who specialize in sports law. There has been an understandably
significant increase in the number of persons desiring to represent professional athletes.
This increase can be explained by the high-profile status of sports and the tremendous
salaries of professional athletes.
The concept of a sports agent representing professional or amateur athletes is a
relatively recent phenomenon. As recently as twenty years ago, few athletes employed
sports agents. Instead athletes would rely on lawyers or family to negotiate their contracts.
However, since the late 1960's and early 1970's, sports agent representation of athletes has
greatly expanded due to the large amounts of money athletes can make and their in ability
to negotiate contracts.
A college degree is not absolutely necessary to be a sports agent. Many successful
agents skipped college to persue their career. However, a college education does aide in
getting clients. A sports law degree is offered at some law schools to those who want to
specialize in being a sports agent. A prospective agent may also have a sports
administration degree and contacts to help him begin his career. A frequently asked
question is how does a lawyer become involved in the field of sports law and athlete
representation. A variety of firm or individual contacts may offer avenues into the field.
Connections arise from a number of sources, including representing parents of players,
representing unions and representing team doctors. Agents may also represent persons
holding an equity interest in the ownership of a team. An opportunity for employment
also exists as part of a college or professional sports administration.
The expansion of sports agents can be attributed to a combination of social
and economic developments. First, increased popularity of sports has resulted in greater
media coverage of athletic events. As a result, advertising and other commercial activities
have generated increased revenues for professional sports teams and, consequently,
demands from athletes for a portion of this revenue. Second, competition for an athlete's
services from new competitive sports leagues has provided athletes with greater
bargaining power and leverage when negotiating their salaries. Third, through the process
of free agency, athletes have the freedom to leave the sports team that originally selected
them and sign with another team. Because athletes generally do not have the training or
experience to deal with these social and economic developments, many athletes hire sports
agents to draft and negotiate their contracts with professional sports teams, to plan
financial and endorsement endeavors, and to interpret collective bargaining agreements.
The two main duties of a sports agent are recruitment and contract negotiation. A
common method of obtaining clients is by using personal contacts, friends and other
athletes to meet professional athletes. The more sports figures you know, meet and
represent, the better the chance of engaging some as clients. Knowing college coaches is
an obviously beneficial way to obtain clients. Success and good publicity also broaden
avenues of opportunity for sports lawyers.
The negotiation of contracts is just a small part of what it is that sports agent do.
Once a contract negotiation is up you won't do another contract for that person with that
entity for another 7 years sometimes. What are you suppose to do then? What you do is
"personal management." Make sure your athlete is prepared for today, tomorrow, and 5
years from now. Many people do not understand exactly what a sports agent does. Here
is a break down of the duties of a sports agent:
PREPARATION FOR PLAYING PROFESSIONAL ATHLETICS
o An all inclusive workout program; providing the best trainers available.
o Coordinating of individual workouts
o Selection of post-season bowl games
o Discussions with interested team personnel
o Draft positioning; tryouts with teams; recruiting out of college athletes
o Disability insurance
CAREER RELATED SERVICES
Representation of all grievances, hearings, or appeals
Collective bargaining agreements, in the context of professional sports, are contracts
between management and the players' union which govern the working relationship
between the two parties and the players. These agreements contain a surplus of rules,
regulations and contract provisions.
Contract negotiation. There are three important characteristics which are shared by
successful negotiators. First, the representative must be completely informed about the
negotiations. Second, the representative must maintain the client's needs and
objectives. Third, the representative must choose an effective strategy and negotiate
diligently to achieve the client's goals.
Assistance with termination and severance pay
Counseling; With so much attention being paid to their athletic abilities very little time
is spent with the individual person who is "inside" the athlete. There are various issues
that athletes may face that they need an empathetic ear for. This can go from family
issues, to financial, to team problems, or just plain " I need someone to talk to"
Assistance in collecting career-ending/disability insurance proceeds
Workers Compensation claims
Arranging for medical assistance and second opinions from the foremost specialists in
all of sports. Including surgeons and physical therapists.
Off-season employment, if desired
Planning for post-athletic career; coaching; broadcasting; color analyst
Contacts with established individuals and companies in a desired field
Press releases; promoting the player
Television and radio exposure; writing or planning interview dialogue
Arranging local and national interviews
Retaining of specialists when needed or required
Endorsements with national and regional companies
Other marketing agreements
LEGAL ADVICE AND ASSISTANCE
Reviewing and advising on home, automobile and other purchases
Review legal documents
Consultation on all legal matters
Arranging for and consultation with outside counsel when necessary
Negotiating and drafting endorsement contracts
Assisting with family law matters, wills, and estate planning
Preparing all federal, state and local tax returns by an independent accounting firm,
whose sole purpose is tax and accounting issues
Using a tax planner so that clients can anticipate tax consequences of each investment
Advising the client and club during the year of the proper amount to be withheld from
each check so that the client does not have to make a significant payment at tax time
Banking and bookkeeping services
Assistance in selecting financial planners
Developing a budget
A list of financial firms that have worked with our clients in the past or ones that we
A working relationship with your family financial planner or any financial planner or
advisor of your choice
TELEVISION AND RADIO
Developing and exploring opportunities with local and national networks
Negotiating and finalizing details of positions
Enhancing other possible media opportunities
In addition to these social and economic developments, the expansion of sport
agent representation of athletes has brought along with it sports agents who have not
always acted in the athlete's best interests. Such situations are especially prevalent in the
area of intercollegiate athletics. For example, the National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) prohibits a student-athlete from contracting with a sports agent while the
student-athlete is still in college and eligible for intercollegiate athletics. Sports agents,
however, frequently ignore NCAA regulations and secretly loan or offer money, cars, and
other valuable items to student-athletes in exchange for the opportunity to represent them
when the student-athlete's intercollegiate eligibility expires. As a result of such conduct,
the intercollegiate careers of many student-athletes come to an abrupt end because they
must forfeit their remaining intercollegiate eligibility if the NCAA discovers that they have
contracted with sports agents. Furthermore, the reputations of the colleges that these
student-athletes attend suffer from the negative national publicity that occurs when
student-athletes lose their NCAA eligibility by contracting with sports agents.
In addition to their involvement in intercollegiate athletics, sports agents have also
not always acted in the athlete's best interests in the area of professional athletics. Many
professional athletes have lost thousands of dollars because of improper financial
investments and advice made by their sports agents. Many sports agents' inadequate
qualifications have led to their failure to act in the best interest of athletes, by causing
many intercollegiate careers to end and by improperly managing a professional athlete's
financial affairs. When a sports agent agrees to represent an athlete, the sports agent
becomes the athlete's career planner. Thus, the athlete places his economic potential in the
hands of his sports agent. Moreover, when a sports agent holds himself out as a career
planner, the agent is indicating that he/she possesses expertise in the area of athlete
representation. Sports agents, therefore, owe the athletes they represent both a fiduciary
duty to possess the necessary skill and diligence to adequately represent the athlete. Many
sports agents, however, breach these duties because they have not had the proper training
to adequately represent athletes. For example, sports agents are not required to have any
type of educational degree or any minimum level of training, skill, or knowledge in the
fundamental areas of athlete representation such as contract drafting and negotiating,
financial planning, and collective bargaining agreements. Although the various professional
players' associations, the NCAA, and a number of state statutes have all attempted to
address the problems surrounding sport agent abuses, the professional players'
associations and many states will certify, license, or register sports agents who are not
necessarily knowledgeable or qualified to represent athletes. Consequently, athletes cannot
be assured that they are being represented by competent and trustworthy agents. Although
the number of sports agents who fail to act in the athlete's best interests has increased,
causing many athletes not to employ them, a sports agent can prove beneficial to an
A sports agent can help an athlete's performance by obtaining a fair and reasonable
salary for him from a professional sports team. Additionally, a sports agent can help an
athlete take full advantage of endorsements and public appearances, as well as set up tax,
financial, and investment plans. Moreover, sports agents and athletes often become valued
friends and companions.
In an attempt to preserve these benefits and deal with sports agents who fail to act
in the best interest of the athletes they represent, a number of agencies within the sports
field have set up regulations to govern sports agents. The National Football League
Players Association (NFLPA), the National Basketball Players Association (NBPA), and
the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) have all implemented guidelines
and regulations that govern a sports agent's representation of professional athletes.
Additionally, the NCAA has established guidelines and regulations that govern the
involvement of sports agents in the field of amateur sports. Many state legislatures have
also passed legislation that regulates sports agent's activities at both the professional and
amateur levels. While these various organizations and state legislatures have recognized
the need for regulating sports agents and have attempted to remedy the situation, the
remedies that they pose are simply inadequate. Nevertheless, these attempted remedies
illustrate the problems involved in regulating sports agents and help provide an
understanding of the steps needed to control these problems.
Although there is heated competition to represent professional athletes,
there is only a small number of agents representing the majority of players. In light of these
numbers and with relatively few players in the potential client pool, the competition to
represent players is vigorous and at times unprincipled. Often an agent will need a
substantial number of professional athlete clients in order to achieve financial stability or
success. Job security is not a certainty in this field of study.
Sports law will undergo fascinating and interesting changes in the years to come.
Professional sports are undergoing a transformation, as the nature and economics of the
games change. The outcome of this conversion is unclear. It is unclear how profitable
professional sports are in current economic conditions. The recent NFL antitrust cases
described a multi-million dollar salary payment to one owner and significantly
underestimated profitability for some teams. However, the evidence also shows that a
number of franchises are losing money based on reasonable accounting evaluations. In
contrast, the recent sales of the Baltimore and San Francisco baseball teams, the record
breaking sale of the Philadelphia Eagles and the competition for new franchises despite
their cost, reflect significant value of sports franchises.
Players and agents should concern themselves with recent trends and events in the
professional sports industry. For example, the enormous increase in salaries, free agency,
labor stoppages, and the rapidly emerging limits on TV revenues, ticket prices, sky boxes
and other revenue constitute significant considerations for players and their agents.
Additionally, teams from small cities have made extensive use of deferred compensation as
a means of competing with the salaries offered by teams in larger cities. The amount of
deferred compensation combined with the financial difficulties of some teams has reached
significant heights. Correspondingly, a player's representative must consider seeking the
personal guarantees of financially responsible owners and the use of escrow for the player-
client's full compensation when representing blue chip players and outstanding coaches.
My personal opinion is that sports agents have gotten a bum wrap. Sure they
maneuver their way to get what contracts they want, but that is their job. The agent is
only following and protecting the players wishes. Why should the public complain about
someone doing their job?
Why do I want to become a sports agent? My first reason is that sports have been
my life. I do not currently have the skills to play a professional sport. However, I do
obtain a strong business since and I am very strong at negotiations. My second reason is,
it is every young boyâs dream to meet sporting legends. Being a sports agent, I live that
fantasy. My third reason, the average minimum pay for a sports agent is between
$150,000 to $200,000. Some agents make even more than that. I do believe I can live off
Appenzeller, Herb. Sports and the courts. Charlottesville, VA : Michie, c1980.
Champion, Walter T. Fundamentals of sports law. Rochester, NY : Clark Boardman
Greenberg, Martin J. Sports law practice. Charlottesville, VA : Michie, c1992
Law of professional and amateur sports. New York, NY : C. Boardman, c1988- (Loose
Digeronimo, Theresa F. Robert Rules: Success Secrets from Americaâs Most Trusted
Sports Agent. September 1998.
Schubert, George W. Sports law. St. Paul, MN : West, c1986.RESERVE
Sports and law, contemporary issues. Charlottesville, VA : Michie, c1985.
The Sports lawyers journal. v. 1, no. 1 (Spring 1994)- Racine, WI : Sports Lawyers
Uberstine, Gary A. Covering all the bases, a comprehensive research guide to sports law.
Buffalo, NY : Wm. S. Hein, c1985.
Word Count: 2290
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...Lance Farino Sports Marketing Buffalo Bills Project Buffalo Bills Organization SPONSORSHIPS The Buffalo Bills organization offers great sponsorship opportunities to those businesses looking to take advantage of western New York’s number one community asset. There has never been a more or better opportunity for individuals to align their business with the Bills organization. They welcome all businesses as proud partners of the Buffalo Bills and assure opportunities of growth are in reach. Customized packages are offered to help business owners create marketing strategies that help achieve their goals. The bills organization also offers a wide variety of sponsorship opportunities to its potential sponsors. Through home games, stadium signage, branding, media, and tickets and hospitality it is assured businesses will gain maximum exposure. The Buffalo Bills organization has 8 main objectives of achievement for its sponsors: * Increase Sales * Enhance and Develop Your Brand * Drive Traffic * Build Your Profile in the Community * Reward Your Customers * Network With Other Partners * Target a Captive Audience * Entertain Prospects A significant sponsorship opportunity the Buffalo Bills organization offers to potential sponsors is at those individual events held as a benefit to the community. During this past summers training camp the bills held the “2010 Buffalo Bills Training Camp Picnic” a benefit for the Crestwood Children’s Center...
Words: 3525 - Pages: 15
...FOUNDATIONS OF SPORT MANAGEMENT Essay #2 TOPIC: SPORTS AGENTS By, Christos Balafoutis Date: 10/20/2010 Nowadays, becoming a good athlete depends on having a good agent in most of the professional sports. A sports agent is a person who procures and negotiates employment and endorsement contracts for a player. In return, they receive between four and ten percent of the playing contract and ten to twenty percent of the endorsement contract although this figure varies based on their own negotiations with the sports figures. That means that sports agents, make good money. A sports agent is a person who helps market athletes or products associated with that athlete to promote an athlete's career. Agents are responsible for all communications with team owners, managers, coaches and other individuals to help promote an athlete's career. Primarily, agents are used to broker and negotiate contracts for their clients. Also, they are responsible for making recommendations in regards to their options. In addition to finding incoming sources, agents often handle public relations matters for their clients. In some large sports agencies, such as IMG, Creative Artists Agency and Octagon, agents deal with all aspects of a client's finances, from investment to filing taxes. Sports agents may be relied upon by their clients for guidance in all business aspects of life, and sometimes even more broadly. For example, hockey agents start recruiting clients......
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...Elle Kloewer Mrs. Peterson College English 9 September 2014 Audience: American Teenage Athletes How Sports Benefit Life She is sitting there, getting ready for the biggest game of her life. All her emotions are overwhelming her. This will be the last game she plays in a cyclone jersey this season. It all comes down to one play. Her only thoughts are to keep breathing, stay positive, and win. One rebound, that’s all the coach says as she leaves the huddle. Playing a sport is not just about the game itself, but a benefit in every aspect of life. Live life to the fullest, try new things, and enjoy every moment. Health is one of the most important aspects of any sport. Staying physically fit as a teenager/ young adult is a priority to living a long healthy life. In the Harlan Community High School, a student must have a semester of physical education; however, they can bypass this by being involved in a full semester of sports. Athletes put in hours and hours of physical activity every week. Being physically fit is not only just about working out though. Eating healthy can make you that much more of a powerful athlete. Protein, fruits, and vegetables can help keep the body full of energy and power longer than any energy drink or power bar. Sports also increase your metabolism rates so you can eat more to keep your energy up. Having a high metabolisms allows your body to take in more food without gaining much weight. Your cardiovascular system will also be......
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Agents of Sociology
...modes of behavior primarily through imitation, family interaction, and educational systems; it is primarily the procedure by which society integrates the individual. An agent of socialization is an individual or institution tasked with the replication of the Social Order. An agent of socialization is responsible for transferring the rules, expectations, norms, values, and folkways of a given social order. In advanced capitalist society, the principle agents of socialization include the family, the media, the school system, religious and spiritual institutions, and peer groups. It is important to note that our current social order is a tiered social order. It is based on authority, hierarchy, and the differential assignment of value to human individuals (i.e., some individuals like CEOs and presidents are worth more than others). Within this context, individuals receive differential socialization. Those born into the lower tiers receive a socialization process geared to fitting them into the low level, wage based sectors of The System. Those born into the higher tiers receive specialized education designed to train them as low level managers, as corporate or political rulers, etc. There are a number of things that can affect an individual’s socialization process. The amount of impact that each of the agents has on an individual will depend on the situation, the individuals experiences, and the stage of life the individual is in. Family First emotional tie ......
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... How Sports Evolved Recreation Programming Professor Newton 05/10/2013 Whether you have engage in sports in your leisure time, watch as a spectator or played on a professional level sports are major source of entertainment in the world. The earliest historical account of sports date all the way backs to BC time. A sport is defined as an activity involving physical or mental exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another. The ten most popular sports in the world are Football/ Soccer, cricket, tennis, hockey, baseball, table tennis, volleyball, rugby, and golf. In the United States motor sports, pro- wrestling, and martial arts are also popular. Sports are usually governed by rules and regulations to ensure fair competition and ensure the adjudication of a winner though fairness was not always a common practice especially in the ancient world. The history of sport can teach us about the social changes with society. In ancient times it was not uncommon for humans to die during sport events. For at least seven hundred years entire villages participated in violent combat sports such as fencing and jousting. The Romans were especially known for this with the gladiatorial games and chariot racing. These types of sports would almost always leave an opponent seriously or fatally injured. In ancient Greece most sports took place during the funeral games during the Mycenaean period. Such games have been described in Greek mythology like the Iliad......
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...the job, all without ever saying a single word about not getting promoted. People want to emulate those with reverent power due to how they act and carry themselves day in and day out. In recent years, several individuals have emerged in several facets of life that demonstrate many of the qualities that make leader. Whether they be in the world of sports, technology, or real estate, individuals like George Steinbrenner, Donald Trump, Larry Page, Mike Krzyzewski, and Tim Tebow each exhibit craft-specific leadership qualities that help them to be among the best leaders in their respective areas. An example of a leader who fits into the organizational form of power would be the late George Steinbrenner, owner of the New York Yankees. George was so aptly nicknamed “The Boss” due to him keeping a close eye on all team matters ranging from practices to the hiring and firing of personnel. Steinbrenner bought the New York Yankees at age 42 from CBS for $10 million on January 3, 1973. He died at age 80 on July 13, 2010 in Tampa Bay, Florida. In his 37 years as the owner of the Yankees, he transformed the world of professional sports and turned the Yankee franchise into a $1.6 billion team that won 7 World Series and 11 American League pennants. Every team in baseball hated the Yankees, yet all aspired to be like them. Steinbrenner exercised his power as owner in many different ways in order to make the Yankees one of the best franchises in the MLB. Steinbrenner was a......
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...Robert Smith SOC 2340 September 11, 2015 E-Sports International Gaming is becoming more and more popular as new federations continue to pop up like MLG (Major League Gaming) and the International E-Sport Federation. Online competition has rapidly grown throughout the years, and continues to grow as technology grows. If e-sports have become this popular and more enjoyable to watch and play, then why are they not considered to be apart of the Olympic games? Do the Olympics fear for the future? Are they afraid that technology might take over sooner than they expected? I think that it is time the Olympic Games stop defining sports as only competitive games involving physical activity, and start letting technology and the future make history. I want to move the petition forward to make e-sports Olympic games and here is why. What do we think of when we think of sports? Fast paced activities involving lots of rigorous physical exertion, and very well practiced physical skills. I think that we sometimes look past other competitive activities solely because they do not involve physical activity. This is where e-sports come into play, and it may be hard to adapt to at first, because only the younger generation people will understand all of the new technology and games better than most older generation people. StarCraft 2, Dota 2, and League of Legends are all online competitive PC games, where millions of players online from around the world fight and compete with each other.......
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...elected to host such mega event. Why should countries compete to host this event? There could be numerous reasons why a number of countries are keen on hosting World Cup, but the most compelling is the promise of an economic and social windfall. Soccer is one of the sports which people tend to identify themselves with. It has gained popularity owing to its impacts on the players, followers, states and other stakeholders. Currently, the game is estimated to have the highest number of followers than any other sport. Due to its vast effects, Soccer World Cups have gained popularity in the past two decades. For the previously held World Cups, great focus has been on social and economic effects. There numerous articles that have been written about the positive and negative effects of World Cups especially to the host countries. Before the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, it was estimated that it would improve the region’s economy by about 0.5 % per year (The Economist, 2010). South African’s economy was estimated to experience 3% annual growth hence the impact of World Cup was definitely a huge chunk. The economic impact of World Cup seems to dominate news headlines in the country and around the world. The sport has both short term and long term economic effects. It is often assumed that the host countries enjoy huge profits. Existing research and statistics on both social and economic impacts of World Cups, however, are often based on estimations made by financial and......
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...27/12/2015 Travel Biz Monitor :: Print Article [ PRINT] [CLOSE] Features Monday, 24 January, 2011, 14 : 00 PM [IST] Sports Tourism: A rapidly evolving niche in India A holiday with friends or family to witness a mega sporting event is no longer an alien concept for Indian travellers. The number of travellers keen on a ring side seat to cheer for the ‘men in blue’ at the upcoming ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh or their favourite team during T20 tournament or driver in a formula one race is rapidly growing. And these sporting enthusiasts are willing to spend ‘top dollar’ to jet set across the globe to experience the thrill of watching their favourite game live. These fans also like to ‘live it up’ exploring and enjoying the destination simultaneously. Correspondingly, there has also been a marked rise in the number of tour operators and agents specializing in servicing the requirements of this particular segment. It’s not only niche specialists, but also ......
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Agents of Society
...Mashell Chapeyama Zimbabwe There are various agents that play part in the socialisation process in the society. In this essay the writer looks at five of these agents. The writer also looks at the good and bad sides of each of these agents. The agents that shall be discussed are: • Parents • Peers • Religious leaders • Teachers • Friends. Parents Parents are the main agents of socialisation for the children. This is so because the parents spend much of the time with the children, from their tender ages until they are grown up. At home the parents set standards and rules. They insist on certain folkways. Examples include that they must not eat while they are standing. In Zimbabwe parents also teach children moral codes such as clapping and thanking other people. They are taught good ways of treating others. Generally parents set the best guidance to children. This is due to the attachment which parents have with their children as well as the love they have for them. One bad thing in the socialisation that comes from the parents is insisting on certain standards which may not be good for the children. Some religious parents teach their children to disown other people’s religious beliefs. Parents may tend to create stereotypes in their children. They tend to want children to behave in exactly the same ways as they do. Teachers Apart from parents teachers give a lot of socialisation to children. Children believe that teachers are always right; hence they listen......
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Agents of Socialization
...Agents of Socialization | Ways how each socialize the member of society | Examples That illustrate the agents of socialization. | Family | Morals and Values, Interaction and communication | Skills- learn to speak, learn daily chores, learn to socialize among people, to be responsible | School | Peer Group, Study Groups, Gender, | Skills- reading and writing, following rules, respect others, be polite, introduces to diversity. | Mass Media | Radio, Television, New Paper, Internet | Advertisements for persuading people to buy unnecessary items and products, Awareness (Natural Disasters and others), Exchange of information. Entertainment | Peer Group | Gangs, Study Groups | Communication of similar interests, the dress code, behaviour (good/bad), Entertainment. | 1. Develop a table to show the ways in which the following agents of socialize the members of the society. Family, School, Mass Media, Peer Group. Include examples to illustrate these ways. 2. In table form state advantages and disadvantages of the influence of exposure of the youth to the common modes of the mass media, such as Television, Video Games and the Internet. Common Modes of Mass Media | Advantages | Disadvantages | Television | Keeps us Updated on Interests, Entertainment, Educational T.V. | Violence (Violent Shows, movies) Crime Increases, Obscene Language, Aggressive behaviour, Pornography, Time Consuming. | Video Games | Entertainment, Find Friends from other countries......
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...Role of Sports in Society A. Description of the issue The role of sport in society has been debated for many decades. Sport is a part of society as both an educational fixture and an entertainment enterprise. Sport forms part of human and social development; it can contribute to social cohesion, tolerance and integration and is an effective channel for physical and socio-economic development. As a universal language, sport can be a powerful medium for social and economic change: it can be utilized to bridge cultural gaps, resolve conflict and educate people in ways that very few activities can. The goal of the Sports Council is to examine the proposition that sport can be a powerful agent for change that should be leveraged by individuals, businesses, governments and elite athletes to drive significant positive development and progress in a social, economic and political context. 1.261 | Summit on the Global Agenda Role of Sports in Society B. Dimensions • Value of sport: Sport is a means of exchange and understanding among people of various backgrounds, nationalities or beliefs, and promotes expression beyond traditional barriers. The rules of the game transcend differences and inequality and help redefine success and performance. Through sport, people identify new role models in society. • Sport demographics and health: Physical activity has a crucial social impact on society’s health and well-being as well as healthcare costs. A connection also exists between......
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