Corruption is found in the government when instead of thinking about the interests of the citizens as a whole, the members of the government are chiefly interested in promoting their own selfish interests. Corruption is found in both public and private organizations and everyone starting from the clerk to the Managing Director of a company is corrupt in a way or the other. The clerk takes small bribes from the people who visit the office so that their work is finished early than the others who are waiting in a queue. In India, bribes are also accepted in a few temples where devotees offering bribes are given priority over others to visit the temple. Parents offer bribes in schools and colleges to get their child admitted. There is no institution, no organization which is not corrupt in a way or the other.
But the question that arises is that can an anti-corruption movement be started and if yes, shall it be successful. The answer depends largely on the adaptation of anti-corruption measures by both the government and the citizens. It is essential for all the Indians to stop taking bribe and also to stop offering bribe in any form. This is the foundation on which the success of any anti- corruption measure will depend. A recent example of anti- corruption measure has been adopted by Mr. Anna Hazare against the existing system of government. He was of the opinion that the Lokpal Bill should be passed in both the houses of the Parliament as a result of which all the ministers and the members of the Parliament would become answerable before the law.
The movement also supported by Mr. Arvind Kejriwal and was successful initially because it instilled among the citizens the awareness of the necessity to pass the Lokpal bill but this movement proved to be unsuccessful in the later stages when the Lokpal bill failed to pass. Corruption is an incurable disease which all the citizens should try to combat by hook or by crook. It is only because of the corrupt politicians that today India is burdened with enormous loans from the developed countries especially America. It has been estimated that if the money deposited In the Swiss Bank of Switzerland by the Indian politicians return to India, not only will India be free from all the loans but the rising prices of different commodities would immediately shoot down.
People should be allowed to re- elect the candidate they voted for if he fails to fulfill the promises that he made while contesting the elections. People are of the opinion that corruption is a way of life and nothing can be done to eradicate it. It is essential to understand that unless we as the citizens are not determined to do away with corruption from the roots, how we can expect the government to be corruption- free. Corruption is not a new phenomenon in India. It has been prevalent in society since ancient times. History reveals that it was present even in the Mauryan period. Great scholar Kautilya mentions the pressure of forty types of corruption in his contemporary society. It was practised even in Mughal and Sultanate period.
When the East India Company took control of the country, corruption reached new height. Corruption in India has become so common that people now are averse to thinking of public life with it. Corruption has been defined variously by scholars. But the simple meaning of it is that corruption implies perversion of morality, integrity, character or duty out of mercenary motives, i.e. bribery, without any regard to honour, right and justice. In other words, undue favour for any one for some monetary or other gains is corruption. Simultaneously, depriving the genuinely deserving from their right or privilege is also a corrupt practice. Shrinking from one’s duty or dereliction of duty are also forms of corruption. Besides, thefts, wastage of public property constitute varieties of corruption. Dishonesty, exploitation, malpractices, scams and scandals are various manifestations of corruption. Corruption is not a uniquely Indian phenomenon. It is witnessed all over the world in developing as well as developed countries. It has spread its tentacles in every sphere of life, namely business administration, politics, officialdom, and services. In fact, there is hardly any sector which can be characterised for not being infected with the vices of corruption. Corruption is rampant in every segment and every section of society, barring the social status attached to it.
Nobody can be considered free from corruption from a high ranking officer. To root out the evil of corruption from society, we need to make a comprehensive code of conduct for politicians, legislatures, bureaucrats, and such code should be strictly enforced. Judiciary should be given more independence and initiatives on issues related to corruption. Special courts should be set-up to take up such issues and speedy trial is to be promoted. Law and order machinery should be allowed to work without political interference. NGOs and media should come forward to create awareness against corruption in society and educate people to combat this evil. Only then we would be able to save
our system from being collapsed
Now-a-days corruption can be seen everywhere. It is like cancer in public life, which has not become so rampant and perpetuated overnight, but in course of time. A country where leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Lai Bahadur Shastri and Kamraj have taken birth and led a value-based is now facing the problem of corruption. When we talk of corruption in public life, it covers corruption in politics, state governments, central governments, “business, industry and so on. Public dealing counters in most all government offices are the places where corruption most evident. If anybody does not pay for the work it is sure work won’t be done. People have grown insatiable appetite for money in them and they can go to any extent to get money.
Undoubtedly they talk of morality and the importance of value-based life but that is for outer show. Their inner voice is something else. It is always crying for money. It has been seen the officers who are deputed to look into the matters of corruption turn out to be corrupt. Our leaders too are not less corrupt. Thus the network of corruption goes on as usual and remains undeterred. Corruption is seen even in the recruitment department where appointments are ensured through reliable middle agencies. Nexus between politicians and bureaucrats works in a very sophisticated manner. Nexus does also exist between criminals and police. Everybody knows that criminals have no morals, hence nothing good can we expect from them. But police are supposed to be the symbol of law and order and discipline. Even they are indulged in corruption.
This is more so because they enjoy unlimited powers and there is no action against them even on complaints and sufficient proof of abuse of office atrocities and high handedness. Corruption can be need-based or greed-based. Better governance can at least help to check need-based corruption. Better governance can check greed based corruption also because punishment for the corrupt will be very effective and prompt in a better-governed country. The steps should be taken to correct the situation overall. Declarations of property and assets of the government employees are made compulsory and routine and surprise inspections and raids be conducted at certain intervals. Though it seerris very difficult to control corruption but it is not impossible. It is not only the responsibility of the government but ours too. We can eliminate corruption if there will be joint effort. We must have some high principles to follow so that we may be models for the coming generation. Let us take a view to create an atmosphere free from corruption. That will be our highest achievement as human beings.
â € œPower tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts € absolutely.â
It is not easy to define corruption. But in a narrow sense, corruption is primarily concerned with â € ~ € ™ bribery and takes several forms. Corruption is a global phenomenon and is omnipresent. Corruption has risen steadily and is now rampant in our society.
Corruption in India is a consequence of the nexus between bureaucracy, politics and criminals. India is no longer considered a soft state. Now it has become a state of mind where everything can be had for a test. Today, the number of ministers with an honest image can be counted on the fingers. At one time, bribe was paid to do things wrong, but now they pay bribes to get things done well at the right time.
Effects of corruption
india administration is tainted with scandals. India is among 55 of the 106 countries where corruption is rampant, according to the Index of Perceived Corruption Report 2004, published by Transparency International India. Corruption in India leads to promotion not prison. It is very difficult to catch big sharks â € ~ € ™. Corruption in India has no wings wheels. As a nation grows, so do the corrupt to invent new methods of cheating the government and the public.
The causes of corruption
The causes of corruption are many and complex. The following are some of the causes of corruption.
Â • Appearance of the political elite who believe in programs to interest rather than nation-oriented policies.
Â • artificial shortages created by the people with malevolent intent destroys the fabric of the economy.
Â • Corruption is caused as well as the increase due to the change in value system and ethical qualities of men who administer. The old ideals of morality, service and honesty are considered a achronistic.
Â • The tolerance of people towards corruption, the complete lack of intense public outcry against corruption and the absence of strong public forum to oppose corruption allow corruption to reign over people.
Â • The size of most of the population, coupled with widespread illiteracy and poor economic infrastructure tip of the endemic corruption in public life.
Â • In a highly inflationary economy, low salaries of government officials are forced to resort to the path of corruption. IIM graduates with no experience in a very attractive salary than what government secretaries draw.
Â • complex laws and procedures alienate common people to ask any government assistance.
Â • The timing of elections is a time when corruption is at its peak. Great political fund employer to comply with the high cost of the election and ultimately seek personal favor. Bribery to politicians buys influence, and bribery of politicians buying votes. To be elected, politicians bribe poor illiterate people, who are slogging for two times meals € ™.
Measures to combat corruption
Is it possible to contain corruption in our society? Corruption is a cancer, that all Indians should strive to cure. Many new leaders when in power declare their determination to eradicate corruption but soon become corrupt and begin to accumulate huge wealth.
There are many myths about corruption, which must be exploited, if we really want to fight. Some of these myths are: Corruption is a way of life and nothing can be done. Only people from underdeveloped or developing countries are prone to corruption. You have to avoid all these crude fallacies while planning measures to combat corruption.
Â • Laws should be foolproof so that no discretion to politicians and bureaucrats. The role of the politician should be minimized. The implementation of the policies developed should be left to the independent commission or authority in every area of public interest. Decision of the commission or authority should be challenged only in court.
Â • The cooperation of the people must be obtained to successfully contain corruption. People should have the right to recall elected officials if they see that they become indifferent to the electorate.
Â • The financing of elections is at the center of political corruption. Electoral reforms are crucial in this regard. Several reforms such as state funding of election expenses of candidates, strict compliance with legal requirements such as elections in part as political parties have their accounts audited regularly and filing tax income, denying persons with criminal records the opportunity to participate in elections should be presented
Â • Responsiveness, accountability and transparency are a must for a clean system. Bureaucracy, the backbone of good governance, should be more citizen friendly, responsible, ethical and transparent.
• Once again the courts should be open to the prompt and inexpensive justice so that cases donâ € ™ t stay in the courts for years and justice is delivered on time.
Â • The local bodies independent of government, as Lokpals, Lokadalats, CVC and the vigilance committees should be formed to provide speedy justice with low expenses.
Â • A new fundamental right to know. Right to Information should be made, which entitles citizens to seek the information they want. Barring some confidential information that relates to national and international security, another type of information should be available to the general public when necessary. strict measures against corrupt officials will undoubtedly have a deterrent effect.
Corruption is an intractable problem. It’s like diabetes, can only be controlled but not completely eliminated. It may not be possible to completely eradicate corruption at all levels, but may contain within tolerable limits. Honest and dedicated persons in public life, control over electoral expenses could be the most important recipe for fighting corruption. Corruption has a corrosive effect on our economy. Worsens our image in the international market and leads to lost opportunities abroad. Corruption is a global problem that all countries of the world are facing, solutions, however, can only be done at home. We tolerated corruption for so long. The time has come to eradicate its roots.
Anna Hazare’s Movement Against Corruption
A new landmark in the history of independent India, a new path paved by the veteran anti- corruption campaigner Anna Hazare. His struggle against corruption was a gentle reminder of Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha. His fast-unto death, the five day fast has shown the world what Gandhism means in today’s world. The power of Gandhiji’s non violence will never cease to exist in the ages to come. While in Libya and Yemen there is bloodshed for freedom, where people are waging war against one another during the crisis, here in India, a respected social activist Anna Hazare is waging a peaceful, non violent war against corruption. His urge to free India of the greatest evil, corruption, commends appreciation. This fight against corruption staged at Jantar Mantar was not a one- man show. People from different parts of the country gave their support to Anna Hazare. The greatest merit of this non violent struggle was that no political party was involved in it.
Anna Hazare and his supporters were not influenced by any political party. There was only one flag waving high in the sky and in our minds, the Indian National Flag. The fast ended on a very positive note when the idea of Jan Lokpal Bill was accepted by the Government of India. According to the Jan Lokpal Bill, there will be a separate body to investigate and curb the ugly face of India….CORRUPTION; where people have the right to raise their voice against corrupt politicians. Moreover the CBI will be seen as an independent body, free of any other external influence. Now that the bill is going to be sanctioned, a very important question arises…. Can all the Indians touch their heart and say with confidence that the Jan Lokpal Bill will eradicate corruption???? Maybe to an extent but I don’t think it will erase corruption completely in a vast country like India. The Jan Lokpal Bill may have loopholes like the Right to Information Act, an Act passed due to the thrust laid by Anna Hazare. According to the right to information act, the citizens of India have the right to get information on any matter concerning the country, but recently an incident occurred which clearly reflects the loopholes in it. A citizen of India lodged a complaint about the illegal wealth possessed by the former chief justice of India, K.G Balakrishnan.
Even today complete information about the wealth of this most corrupted chief justice of India is not known to the public. Why? Is it beyond the Right to Information Act? Similar loopholes are likely to be there in the Lokpal bill also. It is sure that as time passes some illegal and illogical rule will come whereby the citizens cannot use this bill against the Prime Minister, Chief justice and so on thus restricting its use. The new committee formed to frame the bill must take in the interest of all sections of the population. It should be taken care that the bill will be unbiased and does not favour any person; be it the president or prime minister. Further it should be accompanied by other reformation, yes, reformation from the grass root level. Recently when assembly elections were held in Kerala, crores of rupees were spent by each candidate of the 140 constituencies for campaigning. Where did this money come from?
If it is the contribution made by big industrialists and so on, then those candidates when elected should serve their interests. In Tamil Nadu, people are given free T.Vs and laptops. Where did this money come from? All these are different manifestations of corruption. A very effective way to end corruption is to reduce the money power in elections. Crores of rupees are deposited as black money by many influential people abroad.This unaccounted money should be brought back and if it is done, this black money alone can provide the necessary funds required for the construction of metros in all the states of India. These reformations if enforced can provide that extra impetus needed to curb corruption along with the Lokpal bill. The Lokpal bill is cent percent legitimate and it upholds the spirit of the constitution because its main aim is to create a corruption- free India.
If by any chance it is against any article of the constitution, it is better to amend the constitution rather than the bill because of its most noble cause. The 2G spectrum case, Adharsh Bhavan Colony, commonwealth games are the different issues which we have been hearing in the last few months which has made India a laughing stock in the comity of nations. Let us use the Jan Lokpal bill wisely, sealing its loopholes and see the ultimate result. Let us hope for the best.
Corruption in India has made inroads in all fields of life. Corruption is present in politics, the bureaucracy, corporate and private sectors and is the root cause for most of the problems that plague India. Since the last year, the issue has been widely debated and there has been a considerable mass mobilization against corruption by social activist Sri Anna Hazare and his team members. The Government of India established a Group of Ministers (GoM) in January 2011 to consider measures to tackle corruption. It has submitted two reports.
In pursuance of this, 1. Government has directed that requests for sanction of prosecution are to be decided upon by the competent authority within a period of three months. 2. Government decided that for all officers of the central government above the rank of Joint Secretary, the competent authority to approve initiation of enquiry/investigation under Section 6A of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act will be the Minister-in-charge in the Government of India. 3. Government has also accepted the recommendation of the GoM to put in place regulatory parameters for exercise of discretionary powers by Ministers and to place them in public domain
4. A comprehensive ‘Lokpal and Lakyuktas Bill, 2011’ was passed by the Lok Sabha this year. 1. ‘The Whistle Blowers Protection Bill 2011’ intended to provide protection to whistle-blowers, was passed by the Lok Sabha and is presently with the Rajya Sabha. 2. India ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption in May, 2011. The Convention has entered into force for India on 8th June 2011. With a view to ensuring full compliance with this Convention, ‘The Prevention of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials and Officials of Public International Organizations Bill 2011’ was introduced in the Lok Sabha. The Report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on the Bill is under consideration of the Government.
Corruption In India
All luxury corrupts either the morals or the state.
Corruption in the Indian society has prevailed from time immemorial in one form or the other. The basic inception of corruption started with our opportunistic leaders who have already done greater damage to our nation. People who work on right principles are unrecognized and considered to be foolish in the modern society. Corruption in India is a result of the connection between bureaucrats, politicians and criminals. Earlier, bribes were paid for getting wrong things done, but now bribe is paid for getting right things done at right time. Further, corruption has become something respectable in India, because respectable people are involved in it. Social corruption like less weighing of products, adulteration in edible items, and bribery of various kind have incessantly prevailed in the society.
In today's scenario, if a person wants a government job he has to pay lakhs of rupees to the higher officials irrespective of satisfying all the eligibility criteria. In every office one has either to give money to the employee concerned or arrange for some sources to get work done. There is adulteration and duplicate weighing of products in food and civil supplies department by unscrupulous workers who cheat the consumers by playing with the health and lives of the people. In the assessment of property tax the officers charge money even if the house is built properly according to the Government rules and regulations.
Political corruption is worst in India. The major cause of concern is that corruption is weakening the political body and damaging the supreme importance of the law governing the society. Nowadays politics is only for criminals and criminals are meant to be in politics. Elections in many parts of the country have become associated with a host of criminal activities. Threatening voters to vote for a particular candidate or physically prevent voters from going in to the polling booth – especially weaker sections of the society like tribals, dalits and rural woman occurs frequently in several parts of the country. Recently, the Government increased the salary of the M.P.'s from Rs.16, 000 to Rs.50, 000, that is 300% increase to the existing salary. But many of them are unhappy with rise and want the Government to increase the salary to a much more extent. This clearly shows how the politicians are in constant thirst for monetary benefits and not caring about the welfare of the people. Tax evasion is one of the most popular forms of corruption. It is mostly practiced by Government officials and politicians who lead to the accumulation of black money which in turn spoils the moral of the people.
Major Factors Responsible For Corruption:
- The most important factor is the nature of the human being. People in general, have a great thirst for luxuries and comforts and as a result of which they get themselves involved in all unscrupulous activities that result in monetary or material benefits.
- Moral and spiritual values are not given utmost importance in educational system, which is highly responsible for the deterioration of the society.
- The salary paid to employees is very less and as a result of which they are forced to earn money by illegal ways.
- The punishments imposed on the criminals are inadequate.
- The political leaders have spoiled the society completely. They lead a luxurious life and do not even care about the society.
- People of India are not awakened and enlightened. They fear to raise their voice against anti-social elements prevailing in the society.
Measures To Control Corruption:There are some specific measures to control increasing corruption.
- The Right to Information Act (RTI) gives one all the required information about the Government, such as what the Government is doing with our tax payments. Under this act, one has the right to ask the Government on any problem which one faces. There is a Public Information Officer (PIO) appointed in every Government department, who is responsible for collecting information wanted by the citizens and providing them with the relevant information on payment of a nominal fee to the PIO. If the PIO refuses to accept the application or if the applicant does not receive the required information on time then the applicant can make a complaint to the respective information commission, which has the power to impose a penalty up to Rs.25, 000 on the errant PIO.
- Another potent check on corruption is Central Vigilance Commission (CVC). It was setup by the Government to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the areas of vigilance. If there are any cases of corruption or any complaints thereof, then that can be reported to the CVC. CVC also shoulders the responsibility of creating more awareness among people regarding the consequences of giving and taking of bribes and corruption.
- Establishment of special courts for speedy justice can be a huge positive aspect. Much time should not elapse between the registration of a case and the delivery of judgment.
- Strong and stringent laws need to be enacted which gives no room for the guilty to escape.
- In many cases, the employees opt for corrupt means out of compulsion and not by choice. Some people are of the opinion that the wages paid are insufficient to feed their families. If they are paid better, they would not be forced to accept bribe.
The one thing that needs to be ensured is proper, impartial, and unbiased use of various anti-social regulations to take strong, deterrent, and timely legal action against the offenders, irrespective of their political influences or money power. Firm and strong steps are needed to curb the menace and an atmosphere has to created where the good, patriotic, intellectuals come forward to serve the country with pride, virtue, and honesty for the welfare of the people of India.